Two hundred thirty-eight thousand four hundred seventy-two.

In the Philippines, 156,383 franchises, at least 500,000 drivers, over 2,000,000 families, and countless commuters are dependent on 238,472 jeepneys (Pontawe & Napalang, 2018).

Jeepneys are refurbished American vehicles left after the Second World War and modified with spare parts from other machines…


When the Rana Plaza building collapsed in Bangladesh on 24 April 2013, 1,132 people died and over 2,500 more were injured. It was a devastating loss for many and a reminder of the current conditions workers face in sweatshops. Hundreds of these incidents, some worse than these, have happened because…

Jano Cadiz

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